Tell whether SSD or not in C#

This is a code in C# to tell whether a physical drive is SSD or not. It will do the almost same things using Win32 as a code in C++ by NyaRuRu (SSDなら動作を変えるアプリケーションを作る), which is based on the algorithm indicated by Microsoft (Windows 7 Disk Defragmenter User Interface Overview).

using Microsoft.Win32.SafeHandles;
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Text;

namespace DetectSsd
{
    class Program
    {
        // For CreateFile to get handle to drive
        private const uint GENERIC_READ = 0x80000000;
        private const uint GENERIC_WRITE = 0x40000000;
        private const uint FILE_SHARE_READ = 0x00000001;
        private const uint FILE_SHARE_WRITE = 0x00000002;
        private const uint OPEN_EXISTING = 3;
        private const uint FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL = 0x00000080;

        // CreateFile to get handle to drive
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern SafeFileHandle CreateFileW(
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
            string lpFileName,
            uint dwDesiredAccess,
            uint dwShareMode,
            IntPtr lpSecurityAttributes,
            uint dwCreationDisposition,
            uint dwFlagsAndAttributes,
            IntPtr hTemplateFile);

        // For control codes
        private const uint FILE_DEVICE_MASS_STORAGE = 0x0000002d;
        private const uint IOCTL_STORAGE_BASE = FILE_DEVICE_MASS_STORAGE;
        private const uint FILE_DEVICE_CONTROLLER = 0x00000004;
        private const uint IOCTL_SCSI_BASE = FILE_DEVICE_CONTROLLER;
        private const uint METHOD_BUFFERED = 0;
        private const uint FILE_ANY_ACCESS = 0;
        private const uint FILE_READ_ACCESS = 0x00000001;
        private const uint FILE_WRITE_ACCESS = 0x00000002;

        private static uint CTL_CODE(uint DeviceType, uint Function,
                                     uint Method, uint Access)
        {
            return ((DeviceType << 16) | (Access << 14) |
                    (Function << 2) | Method);
        }

        // For DeviceIoControl to check no seek penalty
        private const uint StorageDeviceSeekPenaltyProperty = 7;
        private const uint PropertyStandardQuery = 0;

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY
        {
            public uint PropertyId;
            public uint QueryType;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 1)]
            public byte[] AdditionalParameters;
        }

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR
        {
            public uint Version;
            public uint Size;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.U1)]
            public bool IncursSeekPenalty;
        }

        // DeviceIoControl to check no seek penalty
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", EntryPoint = "DeviceIoControl",
                   SetLastError = true)]
        [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
        private static extern bool DeviceIoControl(
            SafeFileHandle hDevice,
            uint dwIoControlCode,
            ref STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY lpInBuffer,
            uint nInBufferSize,
            ref DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR lpOutBuffer,
            uint nOutBufferSize,
            out uint lpBytesReturned,
            IntPtr lpOverlapped);

        // For DeviceIoControl to check nominal media rotation rate
        private const uint ATA_FLAGS_DATA_IN = 0x02;

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct ATA_PASS_THROUGH_EX
        {
            public ushort Length;
            public ushort AtaFlags;
            public byte PathId;
            public byte TargetId;
            public byte Lun;
            public byte ReservedAsUchar;
            public uint DataTransferLength;
            public uint TimeOutValue;
            public uint ReservedAsUlong;
            public IntPtr DataBufferOffset;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 8)]
            public byte[] PreviousTaskFile;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 8)]
            public byte[] CurrentTaskFile;
        }

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery
        {
            public ATA_PASS_THROUGH_EX header;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst = 256)]
            public ushort[] data;
        }

        // DeviceIoControl to check nominal media rotation rate
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", EntryPoint = "DeviceIoControl",
                   SetLastError = true)]
        [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
        private static extern bool DeviceIoControl(
            SafeFileHandle hDevice,
            uint dwIoControlCode,
            ref ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery lpInBuffer,
            uint nInBufferSize,
            ref ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery lpOutBuffer,
            uint nOutBufferSize,
            out uint lpBytesReturned,
            IntPtr lpOverlapped);

        // For error message
        private const uint FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM = 0x00001000;

        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        static extern uint FormatMessage(
            uint dwFlags,
            IntPtr lpSource,
            uint dwMessageId,
            uint dwLanguageId,
            StringBuilder lpBuffer,
            uint nSize,
            IntPtr Arguments);

        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Input physical drive number:");
            string sDrive = "\\\\.\\PhysicalDrive" + Console.ReadLine();

            Console.WriteLine(
                "Select method (0: No seek penalty, 1: Nominal media rotation rate):");
            switch (int.Parse(Console.ReadLine()))
            {
                case 0:
                    HasNoSeekPenalty(sDrive);
                    break;

                case 1:
                    HasNominalMediaRotationRate(sDrive);
                    break;
            }

            Console.ReadLine();
        }

        // Method for no seek penalty
        private static void HasNoSeekPenalty(string sDrive)
        {
            SafeFileHandle hDrive = CreateFileW(
                sDrive,
                0, // No access to drive
                FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE,
                IntPtr.Zero,
                OPEN_EXISTING,
                FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,
                IntPtr.Zero);

            if (hDrive == null || hDrive.IsInvalid)
            {
                string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
                Console.WriteLine("CreateFile failed. " + message);
            }

            uint IOCTL_STORAGE_QUERY_PROPERTY = CTL_CODE(
                IOCTL_STORAGE_BASE, 0x500,
                METHOD_BUFFERED, FILE_ANY_ACCESS); // From winioctl.h

            STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY query_seek_penalty =
                new STORAGE_PROPERTY_QUERY();
            query_seek_penalty.PropertyId = StorageDeviceSeekPenaltyProperty;
            query_seek_penalty.QueryType = PropertyStandardQuery;

            DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR query_seek_penalty_desc =
                new DEVICE_SEEK_PENALTY_DESCRIPTOR();

            uint returned_query_seek_penalty_size;

            bool query_seek_penalty_result = DeviceIoControl(
                hDrive,
                IOCTL_STORAGE_QUERY_PROPERTY,
                ref query_seek_penalty,
                (uint)Marshal.SizeOf(query_seek_penalty),
                ref query_seek_penalty_desc,
                (uint)Marshal.SizeOf(query_seek_penalty_desc),
                out returned_query_seek_penalty_size,
                IntPtr.Zero);

            hDrive.Close();

            if (query_seek_penalty_result == false)
            {
                string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
                Console.WriteLine("DeviceIoControl failed. " + message);
            }
            else
            {
                if (query_seek_penalty_desc.IncursSeekPenalty == false)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("This drive has NO SEEK penalty.");
                }
                else
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("This drive has SEEK penalty.");
                }
            }
        }

        // Method for nominal media rotation rate
        // (Administrative privilege is required)
        private static void HasNominalMediaRotationRate(string sDrive)
        {
            SafeFileHandle hDrive = CreateFileW(
                sDrive,
                GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE, // Administrative privilege is required
                FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE,
                IntPtr.Zero,
                OPEN_EXISTING,
                FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,
                IntPtr.Zero);

            if (hDrive == null || hDrive.IsInvalid)
            {
                string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
                Console.WriteLine("CreateFile failed. " + message);
            }

            uint IOCTL_ATA_PASS_THROUGH = CTL_CODE(
                IOCTL_SCSI_BASE, 0x040b, METHOD_BUFFERED,
                FILE_READ_ACCESS | FILE_WRITE_ACCESS); // From ntddscsi.h

            ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery id_query = new ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery();
            id_query.data = new ushort[256];

            id_query.header.Length = (ushort)Marshal.SizeOf(id_query.header);
            id_query.header.AtaFlags = (ushort)ATA_FLAGS_DATA_IN;
            id_query.header.DataTransferLength =
                (uint)(id_query.data.Length * 2); // Size of "data" in bytes
            id_query.header.TimeOutValue = 3; // Sec
            id_query.header.DataBufferOffset = (IntPtr)Marshal.OffsetOf(
                typeof(ATAIdentifyDeviceQuery), "data");
            id_query.header.PreviousTaskFile = new byte[8];
            id_query.header.CurrentTaskFile = new byte[8];
            id_query.header.CurrentTaskFile[6] = 0xec; // ATA IDENTIFY DEVICE

            uint retval_size;

            bool result = DeviceIoControl(
                hDrive,
                IOCTL_ATA_PASS_THROUGH,
                ref id_query,
                (uint)Marshal.SizeOf(id_query),
                ref id_query,
                (uint)Marshal.SizeOf(id_query),
                out retval_size,
                IntPtr.Zero);

            hDrive.Close();

            if (result == false)
            {
                string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
                Console.WriteLine("DeviceIoControl failed. " + message);
            }
            else
            {
                // Word index of nominal media rotation rate
                // (1 means non-rotate device)
                const int kNominalMediaRotRateWordIndex = 217;

                if (id_query.data[kNominalMediaRotRateWordIndex] == 1)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("This drive is NON-ROTATE device.");
                }
                else
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("This drive is ROTATE device.");
                }
            }
        }

        // Method for error message
        private static string GetErrorMessage(int code)
        {
            StringBuilder message = new StringBuilder(255);

            FormatMessage(
              FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM,
              IntPtr.Zero,
              (uint)code,
              0,
              message,
              (uint)message.Capacity,
              IntPtr.Zero);

            return message.ToString();
        }
    }
}

In addition, this is a code in C# to find a physical drive number from a logical drive letter.

using Microsoft.Win32.SafeHandles;
using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Text;

namespace DetectSsd
{
    class Program
    {
        // For CreateFile to get handle to drive
        private const uint FILE_SHARE_READ = 0x00000001;
        private const uint FILE_SHARE_WRITE = 0x00000002;
        private const uint OPEN_EXISTING = 3;
        private const uint FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL = 0x00000080;

        // CreateFile to get handle to drive
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        private static extern SafeFileHandle CreateFileW(
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
            string lpFileName,
            uint dwDesiredAccess,
            uint dwShareMode,
            IntPtr lpSecurityAttributes,
            uint dwCreationDisposition,
            uint dwFlagsAndAttributes,
            IntPtr hTemplateFile);

        // For control codes
        private const uint IOCTL_VOLUME_BASE = 0x00000056;
        private const uint METHOD_BUFFERED = 0;
        private const uint FILE_ANY_ACCESS = 0;

        private static uint CTL_CODE(uint DeviceType, uint Function,
                                     uint Method, uint Access)
        {
            return ((DeviceType << 16) | (Access << 14) |
                    (Function << 2) | Method);
        }

        // For DeviceIoControl to get disk extents
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct DISK_EXTENT
        {
            public uint DiskNumber;
            public long StartingOffset;
            public long ExtentLength;
        }

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct VOLUME_DISK_EXTENTS
        {
            public uint NumberOfDiskExtents;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray)]
            public DISK_EXTENT[] Extents;
        }

        // DeviceIoControl to get disk extents
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", EntryPoint = "DeviceIoControl",
                   SetLastError = true)]
        [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.Bool)]
        private static extern bool DeviceIoControl(
            SafeFileHandle hDevice,
            uint dwIoControlCode,
            IntPtr lpInBuffer,
            uint nInBufferSize,
            ref VOLUME_DISK_EXTENTS lpOutBuffer,
            uint nOutBufferSize,
            out uint lpBytesReturned,
            IntPtr lpOverlapped);

       // For error message
        private const uint FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM = 0x00001000;

        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        static extern uint FormatMessage(
            uint dwFlags,
            IntPtr lpSource,
            uint dwMessageId,
            uint dwLanguageId,
            StringBuilder lpBuffer,
            uint nSize,
            IntPtr Arguments);

        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Input logical drive letter:");
            char cDrive = Console.ReadLine()[0];
            if (char.IsLetter(cDrive))
            {
                GetDiskExtents(cDrive);
            }

            Console.ReadLine();
        }

        // Method for disk extents
        private static void GetDiskExtents(char cDrive)
        {
            DriveInfo di = new DriveInfo(cDrive.ToString());
            if (di.DriveType != DriveType.Fixed)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("This drive is not fixed drive.");
            }

            string sDrive = "\\\\.\\" + cDrive.ToString() + ":";

            SafeFileHandle hDrive = CreateFileW(
                sDrive,
                0, // No access to drive
                FILE_SHARE_READ | FILE_SHARE_WRITE,
                IntPtr.Zero,
                OPEN_EXISTING,
                FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL,
                IntPtr.Zero);

            if (hDrive == null || hDrive.IsInvalid)
            {
                string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
                Console.WriteLine("CreateFile failed. " + message);
            }

            uint IOCTL_VOLUME_GET_VOLUME_DISK_EXTENTS = CTL_CODE(
                IOCTL_VOLUME_BASE, 0,
                METHOD_BUFFERED, FILE_ANY_ACCESS); // From winioctl.h

            VOLUME_DISK_EXTENTS query_disk_extents =
                new VOLUME_DISK_EXTENTS();

            uint returned_query_disk_extents_size;

            bool query_disk_extents_result = DeviceIoControl(
                hDrive,
                IOCTL_VOLUME_GET_VOLUME_DISK_EXTENTS,
                IntPtr.Zero,
                0,
                ref query_disk_extents,
                (uint)Marshal.SizeOf(query_disk_extents),
                out returned_query_disk_extents_size,
                IntPtr.Zero);

            hDrive.Close();

            if (query_disk_extents_result == false ||
                query_disk_extents.Extents.Length != 1)
            {
                string message = GetErrorMessage(Marshal.GetLastWin32Error());
                Console.WriteLine("DeviceIoControl failed. " + message);
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("The physical drive number is: " +
                                  query_disk_extents.Extents[0].DiskNumber);
            }
        }

        // Method for error message
        private static string GetErrorMessage(int code)
        {
            StringBuilder message = new StringBuilder(255);

            FormatMessage(
              FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM,
              IntPtr.Zero,
              (uint)code,
              0,
              message,
              (uint)message.Capacity,
              IntPtr.Zero);

            return message.ToString();
        }
    }
}

I changed the way to close the handle to drive to use SafeHandle.Close method instead of CloseHandle method because I found using CloseHandle to SafeFileHandle may cause error when gabage collector trys to clean up the SafeFileHandle later on.

This problem is touched on in Stack Overflow (How to resolve SEHException, VB .NET 2010). I could not find the related information in MSDN or so but it well explains the problem I had experienced and after this change, I have not seen this problem again.

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